What are the rules regarding the interpretation and construction of contracts in Texas?

Texas, the interpretation and construction of contracts are governed by certain rules that help determine the intent of the parties involved. These rules aim to ensure fairness and clarity in contractual agreements. The following are some key principles and guidelines that apply to the interpretation and construction of contracts in Texas

Objective Intent

The primary goal in interpreting a contract is to ascertain the objective intent of the parties. This means that the court will focus on the language used in the contract itself, rather than the subjective intent or understanding of the parties. The court will consider the contract as a whole and give effect to all of its provisions.

Plain Meaning Rule

Texas follows the plain meaning rule, which states that if the contract language is clear and unambiguous, the court will give effect to the plain meaning of the words used. The court will not look beyond the contract’s language to determine the parties’ intent if the contract is clear on its face.


If a contract is ambiguous, meaning that its language is reasonably susceptible to more than one interpretation, the court may consider extrinsic evidence to determine the parties’ intent. This evidence may include the parties’ course of dealing, trade usage, or prior negotiations. However, if the contract is unambiguous, the court will not consider extrinsic evidence.

Contra Proferentem Rule

When a contract provision is ambiguous and cannot be resolved through other means, Texas applies the contra proferentem rule. This rule states that any ambiguity in a contract should be construed against the party who drafted or provided the contract. This rule encourages parties to draft clear and unambiguous contracts.

Integration Clause

An integration clause, also known as a merger clause, is a provision in a contract that states that the written contract represents the entire agreement between the parties and supersedes any prior oral or written agreements. In Texas, an integration clause is generally given effect, and the court will not consider evidence of prior or contemporaneous agreements that contradict the written contract.

Custom and Usage

In certain cases, the court may consider industry customs and trade usage to interpret contractual terms. This is particularly relevant when the contract language is unclear or ambiguous, and the parties’ intent can be better understood by considering the practices commonly followed in the relevant industry.

Public Policy

Although not specific to Texas, it is important to note that contracts that violate public policy will not be enforced. If a contract provision is found to be illegal or against public policy, the court may refuse to enforce that provision or even the entire contract.